What are refrigerant fluids?

A refrigerant fluid (or simply refrigerant) can be either a liquid or a gas that transfers heat from one system to another. Energy transfer can take place through latent heat exchange (evaporation, condensation) and/or through sensible heat exchange (heating, cooling).
Said fluids can be considered for other applications too. Starting from the market demand, refrigerant fluids that are used as blowing agents are reformulated to produce foams and aerosols, while solvents become a substitute for other fluids that cannot be used anymore.

What is the difference between primary refrigerant fluids and heat transfer fluids?

Primary fluids are always used in compression refrigeration cycles that include a compression, condensation, expansion and evaporation sequence; therefore, they are direct expansion fluids because they directly evaporate in the utility that requires refrigeration.

Heat exchange fluids exchange heat with primary fluids to transfer cold into large circuits, thus optimising costs and safety because they are not hazardous fluids. This remarkably reduces levels of circulating primary fluids and the probability of accidental losses.

The primary refrigerants used belong to the family of halogenated hydrocarbons (halocarbons). They are halogenated hydrocarbon molecules in which some hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogen atoms (chlorine and fluorine). Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) belong to this family. Certain hydrocarbons (e.g. methane, propane, butane, etc), anhydrous ammonia and carbon dioxide are used as primary refrigerants, besides the halogenated hydrocarbon family.

What are refrigerant safety groups?

The Refrigerant Safety Group classification consist of two alphanumeric characters (e.g. A2); the capital letter corresponds to toxicity and the digit to flammability. For toxicity, Class A toxicity signifies no toxicity at less than or equal to 400ppm, Class B toxicity signifies for which there is evidence of toxicity. For flammability, Class 1 indicates refrigerants that do not show flame propagation when tested in air at 21°C and 101 kPa, Class 2 indicates refrigerants having a lower flammability limit of more than 0.10 kg/m3 at 21°C and 101 kPa and a heat of combustion of less than 19 kJ/kg, Class 3 indicates refrigerants that are highly flammable as defined by a lower flammability limit of less than or equal to 0.10 kg/m3 at 21°C and 101 kPa or a heat of combustion greater than or equal to 19 kJ/kg. 

How are refrigerant fluids classified?

Regarding the identification of halogenated hydrocarbons, they are univocally designed with initials based on ASHRAE nomenclature (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers). Like the AHRI (Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute) and its definition of marketing specifications for refrigerant fluids, said organisation is not a regulatory institution. However, its identification of refrigerant fluids is a landmark that is universally acknowledged and accepted by companies. As a rule of thumb, a refrigerant fluid is designated by the letter R followed by three digits: e.g. R 134, R 404

The first digit indicates the number of carbon atoms contained in the molecule minus one unit; the second digit is the number of hydrogen atoms of the molecule plus one unit; the third is the number of fluorine atoms, while any chlorine atoms are calculated based on the difference, knowing the total number of bonds of the molecule (which are double the number of carbon atoms increased by two units). Moreover, if the first digit is 4 or 5, the code refers to a blend of refrigerant fluids that is respectively geotropic (not azeotropic) or azeotropic. If there are double carbon bonds, a fourth digit indicating the number of said bonds will precede the others. Lastly, a lower case letter (a, b, …) on the right of the digits for ethane derivatives (first digit equal to 1) indicates the molecule's growing asymmetry

What are Fluorinated gases?

Fluorinated gases (‘F-gases’) are a family of man-made gases used in a range of industrial applications. Because they do not damage the atmospheric ozone layer, they are often used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances. However, F-gases are powerful greenhouse gases, with a global warming effect up to 23 000 times greater than carbon dioxide (CO2), and their emissions are rising strongly. The three groups of F-gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). HFCs are by far the most relevant F-gases from a climate perspective

Can I directly download the Tazzetti brochure from the website?

Users may access Tazzetti's institutional brochure in the Literature section.

The e-brochure can be directly downloaded and printed from the website after completing the registration form and obtaining username and password.

Username and password must be entered in the Download area, which can be accessed from the Tazzetti website's homepage

What F-gases are used for?

F-gases are used in several types of products and appliances, mainly as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and halons which are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol and EU legislation.

-       Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used in various sectors and applications, such as refrigerants in refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump equipment; as blowing agents for foams; as solvents; and in fire extinguishers and aerosols.

-       Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are typically used in the electronics sector (for example for plasma cleaning of silicon wafers) as well as in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. In the past PFCs were also used in fire extinguishers and can still be found in older fire protection systems.

-       Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is used mainly as an insulating gas, in high voltage switchgear and in the production of magnesium and aluminium.

Where can I see the new f-gas regulation?

The original F-gas Regulation, adopted in 2006, is being replaced by a new Regulation adopted in 2014 which applies from 1 January 2015. The new f-gas regulation is available on the European Commission website at this link.

I have heard that the use of R404A for servicing is banned from 2020, is this true?

Yes the new F Gas Legislation that came into force on 1st January 2015 prohibits the service and maintenance of stationary refrigeration systems with virgin refrigerant with a GWP equal to or greater than 2500, for systems where the charge is greater than 40T CO2 equivalent (10.2kg of R-404A).

How can I contact Tazzetti?

E-mail: please use the contact mode that best suits your requirements.
Telephone: +39 011 9702.1

What are natural refrigerants?

Natural refrigerants are naturally occurring, non-synthetic substances, that can be used as cooling agents. These substances include R717 (Ammonia), R744 (Carbon Dioxide), R290 (Propane) and R600a (Isobutane). 

Where are Tazzetti's branches based in the world?

Counting two business and production facilities in Europe, specifically in Italy and in Spain, and a strategic one in Asia, Tazzetti carries out business over an extensive territory through partnerships with clients in the 4 continents. To date Tazzetti's business activities cover 35 countries, including 20 EU member states and 15 countries in South America, North Africa and the Middle East.